Manual of Rootstocks

M9Dwarf M9 class rootstock

Used for: Apple
Developed by: East Malling Research Center
Country of origin: United Kingdom
Introduced: 1912

The traditional and best-known dwarfing rootstock.

It should be planted on a fertile, well-drained site with a consistent, ample moisture supply.  Very poor tolerance of waterlogged soils.

Do not grow this rootstock on light-textured soils, such as sandy loam, without supplemental irrigation. ‘M.9' needs a grass and weed free growing area. Avoid shallow planting, roots break easily.

The tree itself also has brittle wood.

The rootstock overgrows the scion making a lump on the main leader.

Trees on ‘M.9' are very productive, however, the original ‘M.9'clone contained viruses that produced a tree about 30% smaller than the virus-negative ‘M.9 EMLA'.

Used for high-density plantings, it induces extremely heavy, early cropping and larger fruit.

It is reported that in Lithuania, ‘M.9'offers the highest cumulative yield efficiency (CYE) and productivity. However, just further north in Latvia, ‘M.9' does poorly.

‘M.9' is very resistant to Southern Blight.

M9 rootstock characteristics

  • Species compatibilityApple
  • Vigour % of standard25% - 30%
  • Rootstock size classDwarf
  • PrecocityPrecocious
  • Support requiredPermanent support
  • DeveloperEast Malling Research Station
  • Country of originUnited Kingdom
  • Period of origin1900 - 1949
  • Woolly aphidSome susceptibility
  • Fire blightVery susceptible
  • Powdery mildewSome resistance
  • Burr knotsSome
  • Collar rotSome resistance
  • Crown GallVery susceptible
  • Crown rotSome resistance
  • Root suckersMany

See also

  • Fleuren 56

    M.9 Fleuren 56 is one of the less vigorous M.9 clones.
  • M9 Nagano

    M.9 Nagano is recommended for planting in Japan and is slightly smaller than other M.9 clones.
  • M9 Pajam 1

    Pajam 1 has had limited testing in North America. V or Super Slender Spindle growing systems may work best with this rootstock.
  • M9-T337

    M.9-T337 is the current dominant strain used commercially in the M9 class. It is virus free. Some say that mice like this tree.

Find our more about this rootstock in the 'Manual of Worldwide Temperate Zone Fruit and Nut Tree Rootstocks'.

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